Tamil Lanuguage History
Tamil is that the oldest and purest of the four Dravidian languages, others being Kannada, Kodagu and Malayalam. Ancient Indian literature is not all regarding the Vedas; it’s regarding Sangam literature too. Tamil, the oldest and truest of the Dravidian speeches, boasts of this literary tradition of quite a combine of,200 years, the foremost outstanding body of secular poetry extant in India. whereas completely different pre-Aryan languages were happily courting Sanskrit and Prakrit, recent Tamil stood firm in its corner refusing to yield. However, the evolutionary story of the language and script are an argument among students even today.
The Sangam compositions are anthologies of poems grouped into two – the Eight Collections (Ettuttokai) and additionally the ten Idyls (Pattu-p-pattu). There are few individual long narrative poems (Kavyas). primarily based on two distinct themes, akam (romantic) and puram (martial), the poems are replete with imageries of seasons, places, plants and animals, enabling students to know the earth of these ancient poets. The literary output until regarding 5 hundred AD is solely very good.
By consecutive century, Shaiva (in praise of Shiva) and Vaishanva (in praise of Vishnu) writers began rising from sleep, leading to a religious renaissance. it had been the flip of devotional literature to hog the limelight. The corpuses of Shaiva hymns, sung until today, were compiled in Tirumurarais (early eleventh century). The Vaishnava saints lay the muse of the Bhakti cult not only for South India (500-1000AD), but additionally for the overall of India. Their songs were place along at intervals the colossal Nal-ayira-p-pirapantam, additionally cited because the ‘Book of 4000 Hymns’.
Some of the good Tamil poets lived at intervals the days of the mighty Chola kings (10th-13th centuries), a quantity of literary revival. Kampan’s Ramayana is that the most effective in Tamil until today. Ottakkuttan wrote the Uttara Kanda, the last canto of the Ramayana. Pukazhenti popularized the Mahabharata along with his simple variations in Tamil, and Chayam Kontar wrote an extended war poem ‘Kalingattu Parani’, at intervals the Sangam vogue. Didactic works, grammatical treatises and lexicons were made of time to time by Jain writers.
Age of Commentaries On Sangam Poetry & Sanskrit Literature
After the literary revival, it had been the age of learned commentaries on Sangam poetry, Shaiva and Vaishnava philosophies, and literature influenced by Sanskrit. variety of those were the esteemed Bharatham by Villiputthurar, Thiruppuhazh (hymns) by Arunagirinathar and translations of the various Puranas. Some smart stray verses of this era are collected in late anthologies, like Kalamegham, Satthimutthapulavar and Padikkasu Thambiran.